Manufacturing Process – Denim Jeans | Trends, News and Reports | Worldwide https://www.denimsandjeans.com Wed, 06 Mar 2019 04:49:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.4 Bext360 Blockchain Technology To Trace Organic Cotton https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/bext360-blockchain-technology-to-trace-organic-cotton/38138 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/bext360-blockchain-technology-to-trace-organic-cotton/38138#respond Tue, 05 Mar 2019 12:33:15 +0000 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=38138

Cotton is most widely used as a raw material in the world for manufacturing apparels, denims, textiles, lingerie and even food and medical products.With an increase in the organic cotton demand in the fashion world, it is a known fact that growing cotton has many challenges. This renewable and biodegradable resource has became an essential […]

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Bext360–Blockchain Technology To Trace Organic Cotton | Denimsandjeans

Cotton is most widely used as a raw material in the world for manufacturing apparels, denims, textiles, lingerie and even food and medical products.With an increase in the organic cotton demand in the fashion world, it is a known fact that growing cotton has many challenges. This renewable and biodegradable resource has became an essential part of textile industry. The increase in interest in organic materials in fashion is growing, and the global market for just organic cotton alone has risen to $15 billion according to the recent article in Forbes.

What is Organic Cotton ?

The organic cotton eliminates the use of harmful pesticides, fertilizers and chemicals. The techniques used does not harm soil fertilization , prevents polluton of water etc.Farmers who have shifted to organic cotton farming, not only made their lives healthy but also benefitted the ecosystem. Not only this, organic ways improves the working and provides a healthy environment for farmers and wrokers.

Bext360 – The Initiative

The Blockchain startup Bext360 has decided to partner with multiple tech companies for testing if the blockchain can be used for using the organic cotton supply chian.

“We’ve developed systems at the farm level,” said Dan Jones, founder and CEO of Bext360. “We can mark those bags so that we’re sure about the location where we’ve harvested the cotton.”

“By integrating these marker partners into this, we’re able to decrease the cost of people to manage their supply chain and increase their ability to prove authenticity, sustainability and origin,” added Jones

Bext360 provides comprehensive and measurable accountability for critical supply chains. The SaaS platform provides unsurpassed blockchain traceability and quantifiable measurements for sustainability.Bext360 focuses on supply chains such as coffee, seafood, timber, minerals, cotton and palm oil to provide a traceable fingerprint from producer to consumer.

The pilot test is called as Organic Cotton Traceability Pilot. It is a partnership between the C&A Foundation, the Organic Cotton Accelerator and Fashion for Good supported by C&A, Zalando, PVH Corp and the Kering Group. In the current phase, organic cotton is traced from farms to the gin for processing. The second and third phase will ensure the tracing of cotton from gin to consumer and then scaling it for fashion industries respectively.Organic cotton only accounts for under 1% of the total global production of cotton, according to the statistics from Textile Exchange. Still as it costs too much to produce, that percentage still accounts for nearly $15 billion market.

Several companies are working with technical pilot Bext360 for this initiative.To ensure the authenticity of the cotton , these companies “tag” the cotton which is further being “fingerprinted”  in the supply chain by Bext360 to ensure the veritable nature of the cotton.The blockchain software then creates a “token” through which the consumer can trace every path of cotton.  These individual electronic tokens can be used to track the process of harvesting, processing, manufacturing uptill the final product.

The blockchain software attached with every individual cotton source provides a digitized way to manage the payment of the stakeholders at every level.This way genuine farmers and cotton producers can be tracked and given their fair share of hardwork. It does not end here, the quality delivered to the customer can be fairly managed and maintained via this technology as it tracks those producers and fashion companies who are not producing the quality cotton that they claim.

The pilot Bext360 Agricultural project can be a great contributor in the sustainability efforts of the brands and the supply chain. With cotton becoming more verifiable, there will be added incentive for all in the chain to use the sustainable cotton and the brands will be happy to give verifiable tags to their consumers. In all , it can be a game change for DENIM and other cotton specific industries.

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Laser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software https://www.denimsandjeans.com/environment/laser-wash-time-reduce-35-percent-new-revolaze-software/33039 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/environment/laser-wash-time-reduce-35-percent-new-revolaze-software/33039#respond Tue, 10 Apr 2018 11:34:16 +0000 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=33039

RevoLaze, LLC, a laser technology firm headquartered in Westlake, OH, announced the official launch of the revolutionary LightLaze, an automated online software tool aimed at decreasing laser cycle time and removing harmful chemicals in the denim finishing process. The company has worked deeply into the technical aspects of the laser working to enable improve the […]

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RevoLaze, LLC, a laser technology firm headquartered in Westlake, OH, announced the official launch of the revolutionary LightLaze, an automated online software tool aimed at decreasing laser cycle time and removing harmful chemicals in the denim finishing process. The company has worked deeply into the technical aspects of the laser working to enable improve the performance of the lasers. Here is what they have done .

For the majority of laser files that have multi-layers, LightLaze software converts these files into one single file without compromising design or quality, and has shown up to a 40% improvement in laser cycle time. Trials of LightLaze have been very positive as per the company, with laser designers from over 10 countries using the software and reporting significant laser cycle time savings. For single layer files, LightLaze will enhance the design to bring out more contrast, such as highs and lows. Along with graphic optimization, LightLaze, when combined with modifying the washing process, reduces or eliminates the harmful potassium permanganate spray along with the neutralization process. By adopting this method, the laser alone can achieve the necessary brightness. Revolaze claims it is an eco-friendly and low cost alternative to PP spray and will result in major chemical, time and cost savings .

Since LightLaze is an online tool accessible to any laser designer throughout the world, no additional hardware or laser upgrades are needed to start converting files. The software works on all laser systems currently in the market. It is as simple as importing your standard laser files to www.lightlaze.com, pressing the export button and the new files are downloaded. Sign up will enable one to start converting files immediately upon activation.

According to Darryl Costin Jr., President of RevoLaze, the growth of using laser technology to abrade denim has created a need to maximize throughput, “The industry has learned that in order to create the natural and authentic look of worn jeans, laser designers typically use multi-layer files to replicate the standards. While the right look is achieved with this technique, it negatively impacts the overall production time. RevoLaze understands the importance for denim manufacturers to optimize each denim finishing process. We are confident that LightLaze will help the denim industry increase production and more importantly, lower costs without compromising the desired look.”

To RevoLaze’s Vice President of Operations, Ryan Ripley, LightLaze is just one of the many ways they can help facilitate growth in laser usage for abrasion, “As the only independent laser research & development facility in the United States devoted to the textile market, our goal for the past two decades is to create and provide solutions for the industry. As consultants, researchers, inventors and trainers, our company wants the laser industry to continue to grow and replace harmful and hazardous denim finishing methods. The benefits of laser technology are plentiful and we want to make sure the industry has the right tools in place to succeed.”

A RevoLaze customer tested the LightLaze software for both laser cycle time savings and PP replacement. The pictures below were provided by Silvermoon Jeans wash development centre under the direction given by Silver Jeans Company. Mr. Ali Fada, Director of Wet Processing, had this to say,

“From the development trials we run on the LightLaze software (using pixel time 70 vs original 50+50). We are encouraged by the outcome on initial trials and will continue to internally calibrate the execution further to achieve even better results. The time saving between LightLaze 70 vs original 50 + 50 is between 20 & 25%.”

Laser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software | Denimsandjeans.comLaser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software | Denimsandjeans.com

Laser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software | Denimsandjeans.comLaser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software | Denimsandjeans.comLaser Wash Time To Reduce Over 35 Percent With New RevoLaze Software | Denimsandjeans.com

Check the video below 

While any denim brand or manufacturer can access LightLaze, RevoLaze has partnered with industry representatives to help facilitate the global launch in key markets throughout the world. For the rapidly expanding Asian market, GDS Chemical, an environmentally focused leader in the laundry and textile market, will provide support throughout Bangladesh. Shaheen Ul Alam, Director, is excited for the partnership, “GDS is renowned for its quality and service in Bangladesh textile sector for more than two decades. We are really glad to be able to join hands with RevoLaze to introduce this latest LightLaze technology to our customers in Bangladesh as they will be highly benefited with this sustainable technology.”

For Pakistan, India and surrounding countries, the RevoLaze representative will be Affan Ur Rahim, who has over 8 years of denim finishing experience in laser development, laser design, denim washing and laser maintenance / repair. He has worked at some of the largest Pakistan denim companies, including Ali Murtuza Associates, Rajby International, Artistic Denim Mills and Akhtar Textile. For the time being, RevoLaze’s technical support team will assist customers in all other markets. Please stay turned for future announcements regarding RevoLaze partners in other parts of the world. For more information on testing LightLaze, please contact Ryan Ripley at ryan@revolaze.com or visit http://www.lightlaze.com.

About RevoLaze LLC

RevoLaze is a US based technology firm dedicated to create and implement patented laser processes. For over 20 years, they have provided economic and environmental solutions to the textile industry through innovation. RevoLaze technologies help mills, manufacturers and denim brands lower overall cost, while increasing volume and design capabilities. These processes also reduce or eliminate various health hazards, such as hand sanding and PP spray. With over 30 international patents granted, some of the biggest denim brands and manufacturers in the world license RevoLaze technology. Several of the leading denim brands and manufacturers work with RevoLaze to maximize their use of lasers from development through production. Visit their US based design center where companies can see the future of laser technology – the only 2,500 watt laser that etches designs in seconds with ultra fine detail.

 

 

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Vegan Denim and Greenscreen – New Sustainable Initiatives from Orta https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim-fabric-developments/vegan-and-greenscreen-new-sustainable-initiatives-from-orta/14360 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim-fabric-developments/vegan-and-greenscreen-new-sustainable-initiatives-from-orta/14360#respond Thu, 30 Apr 2015 01:14:38 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=14360

Vegan Denim ORTA, Turkey , brings out a new angle to sustainability with their VEGAN Denim, a collection of denim fabrics  produced exclusively with vegetable and natural dyestuff at an industrial scale. What makes the concept special is its unique dyeing methodology that has never been applied at industry scale before.  ORTA claims that it […]

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Vegan Denim

vegan_Denim_PR_image_1 ORTA, Turkey , brings out a new angle to sustainability with their VEGAN Denim, a collection of denim fabrics  produced exclusively with vegetable and natural dyestuff at an industrial scale.

What makes the concept special is its unique dyeing methodology that has never been applied at industry scale before.  ORTA claims that it is the first in the industry to produce fabric using this method at an industrial scale with VEGAN Denim.

The art of dyeing is as old as human civilization. Man learnt to use different kinds of natural coloring agents to dye cloths. The major obstacle for dyeing fabric with natural dyestuff has been the difficulty in producing good color intensity and shade consistency. This problem was due to the vegetal dyestuff’s lack of efficacy when applied to cotton.

Orta has developed a new dyeing technique that thoroughly overcomes the problems of affinity and consistency. As a result of long-term research and study, this technology ensures an increase in affinity of dyestuff to cotton. The results show greater stability and consistency in dyeing. Thanks to the VEGAN methodology, it is easy to obtain intense shades in both vegetal indigo and natural colors. ORTA VEGAN Denim is an effort by the company towards sustainability. A responsible product, ORTA VEGAN Denim seems to  uses less water, less energy and fewer chemicals than conventional dyeing methods. As per the company , the energy consumed is 30%less ,the water consumption is 70 lt less/kg fabric.

 

Orta Vegan Denim

ORTA has obtained a legal patent for the process and it is subsidized by European Union Research Funds.

GreenScreen 

Orta Anadolu and Garmon Chemicals join forces to be the first in the industry to apply the GreenScreen® methodology on denim fabrics.

Press_Release_image Environmental solutions are required as a response to game-changing business transformations that are starting to take place in the apparel industry. Those changes are driven by an increasing pressure coming from public opinion asking the textile industry for a way more ethical approach. To retain their positions of strength, fashion / lifestyle brands and industrial actors alike nowadays have to re-think the level of responsibility of the chemistry present on their products and prioritize it alongside the consumer insights and technical expertise required to conceive and produce the innovative products they need. This has allowed Garmon Chemicals and Orta Anadolu to pioneer a successful breakthrough approach to a new breed of highly conscious denim materials.

GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals” is a revolutionary, publicly available and transparent chemical hazard screening method developed by the NGO “Clean Production Action” (CPA) to help our society move quickly and effectively towards the use of greener and safer chemicals. It’s an assessing methodology purely based on toxicology and aimed at identifying safer chemicals.

Garmon Chemicals is the first company to have obtained GreenScreen® certification on a large number amount of their chemicals and currently leads the way, by far, in garment processing. Orta Anadolu has decided to pioneer the adoption of garment chemistry onto textile, leading to the development of denim fabric advancements. Orta Anadolu and Garmon Chemicals, through their GreenScreen® collaboration, pave a new way of working based on the simultaneous presence of very diverse disciplines. This cross-functionality is efficiently used to generate new knowledge and set an example to follow.

Orta Anadolu launched its sustainability division ‘OrtaBlu’ in 2010 in order to communicate company’s sustainability efforts and to promote responsible production plus lifestyles. Garmon sets its ecological standards by sustainability by innovation and efficiency. The company believes that sustainability brings the opportunity to innovate and become a pioneer in textile industry and builds greater emotional connection between brand and the community. Being well aware of these facts, and Orta Anadolu and Garmon Chemicals volunteered for the environmental missionary as they burden to introduce GreenScreen® Methodology.

Greenscreen finished products are not a specific collection but are for the customers who request for the same. Currently mainly chemicals used in finishing are certified and it is hoped that later the indigo and other chemicals used in dyeing could also be certified.

 

I asked Ebru Ozaydin , marketing manager at Orta Anadolu , if  using such technologies   will make difference to sustainability and if the customers are ready to pay extra for such products. She replied

“We always believe our industry can find greener and safer solutions and create awareness for the end consumer.That is why we established our sustainability division 5 years ago. It is not only Vegan Denim or GreenScreen finished products but also other best practices such as Better Cotton, AlchemyOne…
We can not ask the cost of sustainability from the end consumer, it is more of a culture, a philosophy, an approach, seeing the overall picture and being aware of the realities while doing business and try to come up with better solutions. And it is the responsibility of all members in the supply chain. The customer is now more aware, knowledgeable and asks for more, better, safer, cleaner.I think we’re far from the point thinking that it is a marketing gimmick. On the contrary, it is a necessity.”

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Ecoblast – World’s First Substitute Of Sandblasting https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/ecoblast-worlds-first-substitute-of-sandblasting/11550 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/ecoblast-worlds-first-substitute-of-sandblasting/11550#respond Wed, 18 Jun 2014 07:10:45 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=11550 Pizarro laundries  in Portugal , and one of the largest in Europe, is known for its innovations in the field of  washing.  Besides being the first one to launch ice wash, the company brought out the Eco Blast – a process which is claimed as the ‘ World’s First Substitute of Sandblasting’. Sandblasting , as […]

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Pizarro laundries  in Portugal , and one of the largest in Europe, is known for its innovations in the field of  washing.  Besides being the first one to launch ice wash, the company brought out the Eco Blast – a process which is claimed as the ‘ World’s First Substitute of Sandblasting’. Sandblasting , as we all know , has been banned by many brands in the last few years due to its very harmful effects on the workers . Inspite of its ban by leading brands, the sandblasting process continues to be used clandestinely by many companies around the world.  One of the reasons for the same is the non-availability of an economic and easy replacement for the process.  However, the Ecoblast process by Pizarro is claimed to be the first completely safe and certified replacement to the sandblasting process.  We spoke to Vasco Pizarro – Marketing Director at Pizarro Laundries- to know more about this new process and he gave some insights on what the process is about and how they intend to use it.

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1. Hi Vasco ! Eco blast from Pizarro is supposed to be the first alternative to sandblasting in the world. Is it true? Pl explain the process for our readers

Yes Sandeep, it is true, this process is the first in the world to be completely certified as a sandblast substitute.

The principle is the same where we use a high pressure hose to deliver an abrasion blast to the garments, except that we change all the things that could cause any harm to workers. We started by the building where we installed a revolutionary exhaust system that cleans the workspace for the workers, at the same time, all the booths are connected to this exhaust system that separates all the bigger particles and reuses it, the smaller ones go to special filters that are cleaned every day. We have developed a special abrasion material that we called EcoPowder and is present at the European Union Chart of Non Hazardous products, so with this, the values that were analyzed by an independent lab regarding exposure to dust were very very low. Even with this all the workers have to use special masks so they are protected at all times, as well as hear protection and every six months all the workers are subject of hear, eyes and lung tests. To help the workers we also created a special belt for back support so the workers don’t have lumbar problems.

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2. What are the major disadvantages of sandblasting that you have overcome

That is a very good question Sandeep, but as you know this traditional process is one of the worst problems of the textile industry and people around the world are subject of very bad conditions that lead to disease or even death. We created this answer with the well being of workers in mind so there was no major or minor disadvantage to overcome but a problem as a whole to deal, so we are confident that this represents a new era in our industry where the environment protection and the workers well being have to play a key role in our strategies.

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3. Is your process patented?

Yes, this process is world patented by our company.

4. What is the main purpose behind this new technology. Do you wish to serve your customers with it or will you also share/sell the same to other laundries around the world?

As I said earlier this response is part of a sustainability policy that our company has been developing for several years, so for now our main purpose is to serve our clients and the more than 18 million garments that annually pass through our company. Innovation is part of Pizarro’s DNA, we are company that modifies all of its machines, that find new uses, new techniques and new process for all the technology that our team creates. This industry its evolving to a state where everyone wants information but do not want the hassle of creating something new. Sharing is out of the question and selling technology is not our business but we are not closed to any kind of challenge.

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5. Is there a particular certification which helps to calculate the overall impact of your process?

When we say that our process is certified by an independent lab of course we have the overall study of our process. In this case the lab had in mind the standard values of European Union laws, that are already some of the most tightest in the world, and evaluated our process in exposure to dust, exposure to noise and environment illumination. It is certified for the well being of the most important player in this process, the worker….

 

We don’t know how such processes can be spread out around the world to make the textile industry more responsive to worker needs and less polluting. But we can say that the such innovations provide great directions for the industry to take up and reform.
The process of Ecoblast can be more easily understood in the following video by the company . Check it out !

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Shade Control In Indigo Dyeing | Part 3 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-3/10104 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-3/10104#comments Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:01:05 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=10104 This is a technical article by Harry Mercer on the process of Shade control in Indigo dyeing. This is the  third in the series. The first  and second part of this article were published before . Standard Illuminants As stated earlier in this series, colour starts with a light source or illuminant. Illuminants have been […]

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This is a technical article by Harry Mercer on the process of Shade control in Indigo dyeing. This is the  third in the series. The first  and second part of this article were published before .

Standard Illuminants

standard light illuminantsAs stated earlier in this series, colour starts with a light source or illuminant. Illuminants have been standardized since 1931 by the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE). Illuminants are specified by a reference colour temperature such as 6500 degrees Kelvin., which is commonly referred to as D6500, (D identifying as a “daylight source). D6500 is a standard daylight illuminant in the United States and Northern Europe, originally to replicate light on the north side of a building in Chicago at noon. This specification of a light source by a colour temperature was originally established with a device known as a blackbody radiator. This is a small metal sphere with an opening which emits this specific illuminant when heated to a temperature of 6500 degrees Kelvin. Another example is Illuminant A, basically the colour of a tungsten filament lamp, which has a heavy red influence and a correlated colour temperature of 2856 degrees Kelvin.

Specular Component

“Specular” refers to the mirror-like quality of a fabric surface-the manner and directions in which light is scattered, which is a separate consideration from the colour itself. Appearance of a fabric is a combination of color and surface effects. The specular reflection of a sample differs depending on fiber characteristics, yarn count, yarn twist, fabric construction and finishing. These surface effects are neutralised during visual colour evaluation by using specific viewing geometries which relate the angle of the light source to the fabric and the angle between the human observer and the sample. For example, the 45˚/0˚viewing geometry, which neutralises the specular component, allowing a clear view of the colour only, means that the angle between the light source and the sample is 45˚ and the angle between the observer and sample is 0˚ or perpendicular to the sample. Colour measuring instruments offer this and other special viewing geometries to eliminate the specular or surface factors in measurement. If it is desired to include the specular component, then the option known as Specular Excluded (SEX) can be selected. The other option is include the specular component known as Specular Included (SIN). The Specular Excluded is superior for focusing on dyeing variation and prediction of washed colours, while Specular Included measurements are useful for rating the combined colour and physical differences of denim.

Tolerances

A tolerance, in regard to colour measurement, is a numerical difference between the standard color approved by the customer and the colour measurement of the fabric that was provided to the customer. In order to be indicative of a true visually noticeable colour difference, the tolerances should be established based on what a human being would recognize as a visual difference between 2 colours. As a general rule, if there is a total colour difference of ΔE equal to 0.2 between 2 samples, these samples can be considered visually different. With Indigo-dyed denim, this is also true if the colour difference between 2 samples has a value of ΔL = 0.2 in light-dark difference or Δb = 0.2 in yellow-blue difference. However, shades of Indigo are more sensitive in the Δa, red-green difference. In the U.S., it was standard to use a tolerance of only 0.08 for Δ a, meaning that if 2 samples differed by that much, they were considered different shades. This is not only because of the greater visual contrast in red-green differences, but also because of Indigo colour after washing. As Indigo develops a redder or less green shade, it loses colour in washing more quickly. For that reason, the Δa is a good general indicator of how easily Indigo will fade. Δh (hue difference) provides the same indication and is a more precise predictor.

Many denim operations, as well as other textile operations use larger tolerances to specify shade differences from standard. These can be as high as 1.0ΔE to distinguish a slight shade difference, but this tolerance size allows up to 5 different shades to be shipped to the customer as the same colour.

By the numbers

Only by intelligent use of available colour data can the extensive problems with managing shade variation in Indigo dyed denims be systematically brought under the control needed to conform to the customer’s expectations. Colour measuring instrument programs provide massive amounts of direct information that is objective, but the data must be studied and analyzed in order to effectively manage colour, which is the most critical factor in denim success. Factors such as Standard Deviation are the most useful in determining progress, or the lack of it, in reducing Indigo shade variation. The Standard Deviation will demonstrate the relative degree of variation in Indigo dyeing between companies, products, machines, procedures, workers etc. and is the best tool for setting objectives for managers. In far too many denim companies, little concern is demonstrated within the production areas for identifying the sources of colour variation. The standard approach is to resort to shade-sorting or tapering programs that only establish the degree of failure in colour management.

Recommendations

1) ILLUMINANT- Illuminant A has long been recognized as a better light source for distinguishing true colour differences in denim, because of the greater sensitivity of Indigo to red-green colour difference. This will increase the number of to allow the laundry to sort the fabric more reliably in terms of wash-fastness.

2) SPECULAR COMPONENT-While the Specular Included is normally used for fabric shipments, the Specular Excluded is more useful for evaluating the effects of dyeing directly, avoiding the influences of weaving and finishing on denim which is significant.

3) TOLERANCES-Review the colour tolerance used in shade sorting or tapering to determine if it is realistic and allows conformance to the customer’s expectation.

4) COLOUR ORDER SYSTEM- While the L*a*b* colour arrangement is in common use, the L*c*h*(chroma and hue) arrangement allows better communication between denim producers and customers. While the L*a*b* arrangement orders colour in a way that approximates how garment buyers see colour, the L*c*h* arrangement relates more directly to how colour managers, as in dyeing perceive colour.

5) EDUCATION-In order to raise the level of professionalism of those responsible for colour management, detailed, scientifically-based training is badly needed in the denim business in every sector in order to minimize dissatisfaction on the part of customers. There are training resources available from colour instrument vendors on line or colour experts for in-factory training. Selection of staff for colour nmanagement is critical since less than 5% of people are able to grasp the concepts involved, so objective evaluation of colour staff is necessary to maintain an image of professionalism.

 


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This is a guest post by Harry Mercer. Mr. Mercer has 30 years experience in the denim business including 3 prominent U.S. denim companies.He is an expert colorist for measurement and color matching as well as textile testing. He can be contacted here

 

 

 

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Shade Control In Indigo Dyeing | Part 2 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-2/9233 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-2/9233#respond Mon, 14 Oct 2013 07:00:56 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=9233 This is a technical article by Harry Mercer on the process of Shade control in Indigo dyeing. The first part of this article can be found here While it cannot be disputed that, ultimately, how the individual consumer values color with their human subjectivity is the true test of coloration, in large-scale manufacturing of fabric […]

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This is a technical article by Harry Mercer on the process of Shade control in Indigo dyeing. The first part of this article can be found here

While it cannot be disputed that, ultimately, how the individual consumer values color with their human subjectivity is the true test of coloration, in large-scale manufacturing of fabric and garments, the resort to evaluation of color visually is extremely unreliable. Color vision is denim eyedifferent among human observers and varies with the same observer depending on factors like fatigue, age, emotional state and even race Color blindness related to difficulty in distinguishing red-green color differences is most common among Caucasians, affecting 8% of males, but only 0.6% of females, 5% of Asian males and 0.25% of females and 4% of African males, 0.16% of females. The Ishihara test is used to quickly identify colorblindness problems. Many fashion houses require colorists to pass the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test for employment. This test provides a rating of ability to distinguish colors and demonstrates how different individuals are in this regard. When I had the test, it showed that I have excellent color vision in terms of distinguishing violet and Indigo, but hopeless with shades of red. These differences in individual color perception result in endless disputes regarding conformance-to-standard expectations. For final determination of whether a sample and a standard are identical, the eye is still the best instrument, it fails in describing the exact quantity and quality of the differences in a submitted sample to the approved standard. Color measuring instruments, on the other hand, will objectively and precisely measure the exact differences in multiple dimensions, how the standard and sample are related to each other and will determine if the sample is acceptable within a given tolerance through thousands of tests with extreme accuracy and repeatability which nearly impossible with visual measurements.

How Color Measuring Instruments Work

Without engaging in the complex physics and mathematics of color science and measurement, the basic principles of determining color involve a standard light source, an object to bounce the light off of and an observer (human or color measuring instrument). Color starts with light. In a color white light color measurement in denim measuring instrument, a standard white light source illuminates the sample to be measured. This white light can be thought of as containing equal amounts of all visible light colors at a high level-100 units of red, orange, yellow, greens, blues, Indigo, violets etc. Dyes and pigments absorb these colors of light in different amounts and allow the rest to escape, which the instrument measures. With a light shade of Indigo, of 100 units of each light color illuminating the sample, perhaps reflected are 50 of violet, 70 of Indigo, 60 of blue, 50 of blue-green, 30 of green, 20 of yellow-green, 10 of yellow and 25 of red. The instrument collects these quantities and converts that into various numerical values. A curve is produced from this data that serves as a “fingerprint” of a color that distinguishes it from all other colors. The data collected by measuring the escaping light colors is mathematically converted into basically 3 numbers that are coordinates in a 3-dimensional color space. This color space is roughly like a sphere in which all colors thatcolor measurement in denim hunter scale can be perceived by the human mind are contained. The distance and direction in 3-dimensions precisely relate each color to all other colors. From these mathematically precise locations the differences are calculated. These values are then mathematically transformed into a color coordinate system, most often L*a*b*.

Color Descriptors

The starting point of these color spaces is the L-scale which is a vertical axis around which all colors are organized. The L-scale establishes the differences in lightness between samples-how dark or light a sample is. The L-scale starts at the top of the sphere with a value of 100, for a perfect white and ends at the bottom with 0 for a perfect black. In between are degrees of grayness. This axis is neutral with regard to color, having no color or hue, meaning without red, green, blue etc. A dark shade of Indigo may have an L-value of 30 while a light shade may have an L-value of 60. If a color difference were calculated between the dark and light values it would be a minus 30, reported as a DL -30 (delta L, or ΔL, Δ being the scientific symbol for “difference”). Starting from this neutral central axis of this sphere where are colors are mathematically located, moving outward hue is added, hue being the scientific name for color.

From the central, neutral axis, color is added gradually so that when the outer edge of the sphere is reached a saturation limit is reached at which the human eye perceives that the color is too dark to be at the same level of lightness. For example, at a lightness (L*) level of 85, which is very white, as you move outwards at first there is a small amount of red added and you have a color that would be identified as pink. If you add the maximum amount of red, then the color becomes a dark, but bright red. When the maximum amount of red has been added, more than the human eye can recognize at the L* level of 85, the lightness level will drop to 80 because the color had increased to a darker level.

If this color sphere is bisected into a series of planes that go from top to bottom of the sphere, these planes are initially divided into 4 quadrants. In the most commonly used color space (L*a*b*), there is one line labeled a* that represents red-green differences and a line labeled b* that represents yellow-blue differences. Red and green are considered to be opposing colors as are yellow and blue, just as east and west, north and south are opposites.

On the a* line a positive number like +3.5 indicates a red color and a negative number like -3.5 indicates a green. If a standard has an a* value of +3.5 and a sample has a value of +0.5, then the difference between standard and sample is expressed as Δ a*-3.0, simple subtraction. However if the standard has a value of +2.0 and the sample has a value of -1.0, then the total red-green difference is Δa*-3.0 because these are Cartesian coordinates. The total color difference is the same, but the overall visualcolor measurement in indigo denim color chart difference is much greater because crossing the boundary between the red and green sides of color space results in much greater contrast. Red-green differences are the most significant with Indigo, not only because of the visual contrast, but also red-green differences are good predictors of wash-fastness of Indigo and even small differences in the a*values means higher variation in the laundry.

The b* line is similar for yellow-blue differences. The –b* values should be monitored as a way to evaluate changes in the original dyed color of Indigo on yarn.

The third part of the article Shade control in Indigo Dyeing follows shortly..


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This is a guest post by Harry Mercer. Mr. Mercer has 30 years experience in the denim business including 3 prominent U.S. denim companies.He is an expert colorist for measurement and color matching as well as textile testing.

The post Shade Control In Indigo Dyeing | Part 2 appeared first on Denim Jeans | Trends, News and Reports | Worldwide.

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Shade Control In Indigo Dyeing | Part 1 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-1/8504 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/shade-control-in-indigo-dyeing-part-1/8504#respond Sat, 31 Aug 2013 07:06:29 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=8504   For customers of denim, color is the quality that distinguishes denim from other apparel fabrics, especially the unique appearance of Indigo. Indigo has been in use for perhaps 5000 years, originally as a natural dye and in the last 100 years primarily available in the synthetic form. No other commercially available dye can match […]

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For customers of denim, color is the quality that distinguishes denim from other apparel fabrics, especially the unique appearance of Indigo. Indigo has been in use for perhaps 5000 years, originally as a natural dye and in the last 100 years primarily available in the synthetic form. No other commercially available dye can match the appearance of Indigo, especially when faded to light shades which produces a special appearance known as a “patina” which is similar to the glow of a blue sky. The color of Indigo is associated in lore with notions of intuition, religion, spirituality and loyalty.

Indigo-dyed denim presents unique problems in garment production because of variations in color, especially after washing. Fabric shipments to indigo shadeslaundry customers can contain literally dozens of visibly different shades  after washing which requires special efforts in cutting and sewing to avoid mixing garment panels that produce a garment with parts that do not match in color.

The most basic method of organizing shipments of Indigo-dyed denim is to cut small samples of fabric from each roll of fabric that will go into a shipment and sew them together in a “blanket”. This blanket is then washed so that there is some representation of the eventual color after fading indigo shades during laundering. Then these samples are compared by the customer and “shaded”, sort usually from dark to light. Then, the fabric rolls with the most similar after-wash colors are combined on the cutting table in order to minimize variation in the garments produced. This technique is often favored by denim mills. This approach can be generally satisfactory, however has a number of deficiencies.

First, the fabric samples are taken usually from one end of the roll, when both ends should be sampled. Almost all denim companies fail to control Indigo dyeing so that multiple shades are produced in each dye lot and these changes can occur quickly, so that even within a short fabric roll of 100 meters the washed color can change. By sampling from both ends of a fabric roll it can be determined if the roll needs to be cut again in order to isolate different shades.

Secondly, these washed fabric samples are often graded visually, by human eye, which is unreliable because of its subjective nature. Consistent visual evaluation of color requires careful training and management due to problems with eye fatigue, differences in evaluator skill and carelessness. When a poor job has been done during visual shade sorting, it is impossible to supervise the reliability of the evaluation because it is based on subjective individual opinion. The visual approach is favoured by fabric suppliers and customers because of its simplicity. There is also a conceit factor that interferes with reliable color management because of a common assumption that color is obvious and those that have roles in judging color that they are natural masters of judging color which is rarely true.

 Thirdly, the fabric supplier will rely on one wash method, usually a rinse wash to produce these blankets for sorting, while with other procedures such as stonewashing, bleaching or enzyme treatments, the samples will fade differently than in a rinse wash so that samples that are close in color in a rinse only will not match well when subjected to other laundry techniques.

Indigo is the most difficult and complicated of all dyes to apply to cotton. Until the 20th century, it was used primarily for wool and silk which are more suitable for Indigo dyeing. The Indigo dyeing process is inherently unstable as normally practiced. The dye must be reacted with a reducing agent, normally sodium hydrosulfite, which begins to lose strength as soon as it is mixed and the concentration available in the dye mix changes during the dyeing operation unless it is buffered, which results in the Indigoindigo dyeing shades shade changing during the long periods of dyeing. This in turn, results in from 8 to 15 washed Indigo shades per set, assuming a tolerance of 0.2 Delta E for a visually-noticeable color difference. The lack of dyeing control for Indigo is nearly universal, so that customers have accepted the variation as unavoidable, which is not actually the case since a few companies have mastered the problem and can produce around 95% single shade consistency

While the Indigo dye molecule does not itself change color during dyeing, the yarn does develop different color tones , usually with reddish or greenish effects occurring. These tone differences are almost always a result of variations in reducing agent levels during Indigo dyeing, with greenish green cast on indigo effects appearing with higher levels of reducing agent and reddish with relatively lower concentrations of reducer. What actually occurs is that the Indigo is more finely dispersed with high levels of reducer which increases the number of points of color (higher chroma) resulting in a greener, brighter, lighter color while low levels of reduction, there are fewer points of color (lower chroma) resulting in a redder, darker and duller Indigo color with the same % of Indigo on weight of yarn. The greener tone is more difficult to wash to lighter shades and is more colorfast to rubbing, while the reddish tone fades quickly and will have greater rub-fastness problems.

The article will be continued in Part II shortly…………


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This is a guest post by Harry Mercer. Mr. Mercer has 30 years experience in the denim business including 3 prominent U.S. denim companies.He is an expert colorist for measurement and color matching as well as textile testing. He can be contacted here

The post Shade Control In Indigo Dyeing | Part 1 appeared first on Denim Jeans | Trends, News and Reports | Worldwide.

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Matching Threads For Overdyed Denim Garments https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/matching-threads-for-overdyed-denim-garments/8028 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/matching-threads-for-overdyed-denim-garments/8028#respond Mon, 15 Jul 2013 10:33:55 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=8028 Colors in denim have been quite strong in the last few seasons with all kinds of shades from pastel to very bright and neon colors. While some of the these fabrics have been yarn dyed , most of the colors have been achieved with overdyeing of ecru fabric. The process of garment overdyeing provides the […]

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Colors in denim have been quite strong in the last few seasons with all kinds of shades from pastel to very bright and neon colors. While some of the these fabrics have been yarn dyed , most of the colors have been achieved with overdyeing of ecru fabric. The process of garment overdyeing provides the flexilibity of achieving any kind of color in the garment with smaller lots. The manufacturer does not have to depend on the limited fabric colors provided by the fabric supplier.

However, one of the important requirement for such overdyed garments is that the cotton threads be used so that they can be overdyed along with the garment and achieve similar color . Many times these garments go through complex dyeing and finishing processes which tend to degrade or destroy the 100% cotton sewing threads which are typically used.

A & E (American & Efird) brings out a core spun thread – D:Core RFD – specially for the purpose of garment overdyeing by the garment manufacturer. This thread has a core polyester with cotton wrapped outside.

Core Spun Thread For Overdyed Garments

As per the A & E team

“To assist our customers with enhancing the quality of their garment dyed products, we developed D-Core RFD which is a Cotton Wrapped Polyester Core thread, with an enhanced cotton wrapper which is prepared for dyeing.  Traditional Cotton Wrapped Polyester core threads do not have sufficient cotton content to cover the filament polyester core, which does not take the dye during the garment dyeing process.  This leads to a speckled seam appearance.  
Our D-Core RFD is available in light and dark versions, which allow our customers to select a version which will best blend with the final garment color.  We always encourage our customers to sample both Light and Dark versions, as often the dark version looks good in light colors.” In many cases D-Core RFD is used in both the needle and the looper position.  In some cases, where a customer may dye and finish a garment "inside-out", they will use our 100% Cotton Anecot Plus RFD (A&E’s 100% Cotton thread offered especially for garment dyeing)  in the needle, and use D-Core RFD in the looper (the inside of the jean sees the most abrasion during the dyeing and finishing process when the garment is processed inside out.   Both combinations have helped customer reduce or even eliminate repairs, increase the range of dyeing and finishing options, and offered customers an improved experience.

A & E Denim Overdyeing Threads

Core Spun Thread For Overdyed Garments

Contact  A & E team for more info

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Denim Product Ideas For 2013 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/denim-product-ideas-for-2013/6888 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/denim-product-ideas-for-2013/6888#respond Sat, 26 Jan 2013 06:47:55 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=6888 This is a guest post by Harry Mercer where he shares some ideas on denim product developments. 1) More Softness In Fabrics Made With Open-End Yarn: Ring spun yarns are preferred in denim because of a feel that is more soft than open-end. The softness of open-end denim can be raised to the level of […]

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This is a guest post by Harry Mercer where he shares some ideas on denim product developments.

innvoation in denim

1) More Softness In Fabrics Made With Open-End Yarn: Ring spun yarns are preferred in denim because of a feel that is more soft than open-end. The softness of open-end denim can be raised to the level of ring yarns in the warp by reducing the twist. For example, in a 14 ounce denim, the warp yarns are often a 7 Ne with about 470 turns per meter in the open end yarn. This can be reduced to about 415 to 420, with almost no loss of weaving efficiency and little decrease in fabric strength. The face of the fabric with the warp yarns is the important side for an appealing touch. However, if the weft yarns are made with a similar low twist, the fabric strength will suffer. This method has been used in 3 denim operations that I have advised with excellent market acceptance. In one company it was found that after mercerizing, the washed garments were softer than ring spun. Also, by reducing the twist in the warp, yarn production is faster and less expensive.

2) Making Denim With A Flatter Appearance: Almost all denim operations have tried flat finishing which is usually a form of wet-treatment with sodium hydroxide on the fabric. The results are variable messy with a great deal of water and energy consumption for the flat finishing. A super flat denim can be produced only with fabric construction, avoiding the additional processing steps which in some companies includes a de-sizing process as well as the sodium hydroxide application, both requiring heavy consumption of water and steam energy in drying. This can be avoided by constructing the fabric with yarns having opposite twist directions Yarn can have either a Z-twist (to the right) or an S-twist. For example, by using the standard Z-twist yarn in the warp and S-twist in the weft, the twill will be diminished, producing a fabric with a flatter appearance than any type of flat finish. S-twist yarns are not often available, but are easy to produce on ring spinning equipment by a simple change of gear direction. The problem in producing them is that when the ring bobbins are wound onto yarn packages for use in warping and weaving, a special attachment in winding is needed for the different twist direction.

Have any more ideas on denim products ?? Leave your comments below !


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This is a guest post by Harry Mercer. Mr. Mercer has 30 years experience in the denim business. He is an expert colorist for measurement and color matching as well as textile testing.

world denim production

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Denim Sustainability Project: Dyeing Process Survey https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/denim-sustainability-project-dyeing-process-survey/6208 https://www.denimsandjeans.com/denim/manufacturing-process/denim-sustainability-project-dyeing-process-survey/6208#respond Thu, 25 Oct 2012 03:17:47 +0000 http://www.denimsandjeans.com/?p=6208 “Sustainability” in textiles refers to methods employed in the production of fabrics that are more environmentally friendly. “Sustain” means “to uphold” or “maintain”, which in regard to manufacturing calls for establishing practices which maintain a balance in nature. A sustainable fabric is one that is produced in such a way that reduces the effect on […]

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“Sustainability” in textiles refers to methods employed in the production of fabrics that are more environmentally friendly. “Sustain” means “to uphold” or “maintain”, which in regard to manufacturing calls for establishing practices which maintain a balance in nature. A sustainable fabric is one that is produced in such a way that reduces the effect on the environment including recycling of water and raw materials, heat recovery from waste water and steam generation and reduction of dye and chemical usage and chemical substitution.

Cotton Incorporated, USA,  is sponsoring a study of sustainability related to dyeing in denim fabric to be published and distributed world-wide in January 2013. Companies and individuals that participate and contribute includable material will be afforded recognition for their efforts to reduce effects on the environment.

The issue of sustainability with regard to dyeing in denim (fabrics)  has for many years been a matter of concern to environmentally-concerned garment consumers as well as leading jeans retailers. By demonstrating a commitment to reducing demands on resources like water and energy, pollution of water and air as well as wastefulness of dyes/chemicals for denim dyeing and waste and degradation of cotton yarns and fabrics, participating denim producers establish themselves as truly responsible providers of the world’s most popular fabric.In the area of denim dyeing, there is enormous potential for reducing demand on resources including unnecessary dye/chemical consumption, water treatment and energy.

Sustainability in denim  jeans

 

The benefits of employing sustainable practices in the denim dyeing include:

  • Improved brand reputation to concerned garment producers, retailers and jeans consumers.
  • -Improved customer satisfaction by establishing your company as an environmentally-responsible fabric producer.
  • Improved profitability by reducing waste, especially reducing excessive use of dyes and chemicals which occurs in most denim operations.
  • Reduction of waste water treatment by identifying and correcting causes of unnecessary dye losses in washing.

BENEFITS OF BEING INVOLVED

-This project will be surveying denim producers and their suppliers of equipment and chemicals for methods that they have already implemented in order to reduce water, energy and raw material waste.

-Additionally, participants will be asked to conduct trials using methods that have been employed in a few denim companies that reduce consumption of resources and have reported to have produced significant savings as well as quality and weaving efficiency improvements. Those that provide study results will receive recognition in the Cotton Incorporated Report when distributed world-wide next year.

HOW TO BECOME INVOLVED

  • Nominate a responsible manager from your company along with contact details.
  • Provide a report of those activities that you have already undertaken in the last 10 years to promote sustainability.
  • Answer as many of the questions on this initial survey and provide the details by November 15th.

Questionnaire

A) Mention Dyeing method

1) ROPE

2) SLASHER

3) LOOP

4) SKEIN

B) Mention Water Consumption

1) Liters of water consumed in washing per kilogram of yarn

2) Kilograms of steam used per kilogram of yarn.

3) Liters of water recovered per kilogram of yarn.

4) Liters of water used in dye/chemical mixes per kilogram of yarn.

C) Dye Consumption : % Dye on  weight of yarn  (average)

1) INDIGO

2) SULFUR (BLACK)

3) SULFUR BOTTOM

4) SULFUR TOP

5) OTHER DYES(STATE TYPE)

D) Dye Reducing Agents

TYPE: GRAMS/KILOGRAM YARN

1) SODIUM SULPHIDE (Na₂S)

2) SODIUM HYDROSULFIDE (NaSH)

3) DEXTROSE

4) SODIUM DITHIONITE (HYDROSULFITE-Na₂S₂O₄)

5) HYDROGEN

YARN WASTE

1)Kilograms of cotton yarn delivered to dyeing versus kilograms of yarn delivered to weaving.

2)-Disposition of waste yarn: disposal as waste, sold as waste with price per kilogram or reuse in fabric as reclaimed fiber, leader yarn or in special fabric constructions.

For more information and/or for getting involved in this project , pl contact Harry Mercer (from Indigo BLue) and Michael Tyndall from Cotton Inc on email here

Also check out our comprehensive report on the world denim market launched recently.

world denim frontpage5

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